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Schizophrenia: Definition, Symptoms, and Treatment

Schizophrenia is a severe mental condition that affects a person’s ability to think, feel, and act. People with schizophrenia may appear to have lost touch with reality, causing tremendous distress to the person, their family, and friends. Schizophrenia symptoms can be severe and devastating if left untreated. Effective remedies are, nevertheless, accessible. Treatment can assist affected individuals to engage in school or job, gain independence, and enjoy personal relationships when administered in a timely, organized, and sustained manner.

When Does It Start and What Are the Symptoms?

Schizophrenia is most commonly diagnosed in late adolescence the to early thirties, and males (late adolescence – early twenties) are diagnosed earlier than females (early twenties – early thirties). The first episode of psychosis, when people first show signs of schizophrenia, is commonly followed by a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Gradual changes in thinking, emotions and social functioning normally begin in mid-adolescence, before the first episode of psychosis. Schizophrenia can strike youngsters as early as five years old, but it is uncommon before late adolescence.

The following three categories best describe the symptoms of schizophrenia:

Affected perceptions (e.g., changes in vision, hearing, smell, touch, and taste), abnormal thinking, and strange behaviors are all indicators of psychosis. People suffering from psychotic symptoms may lose their common sense of reality and have distorted perceptions of themselves and the world. Individuals commonly have the following symptoms:

-Hearing voices or seeing things that aren’t there are examples of hallucinations.
-Delusions, are strongly held ideas that are not backed by objective facts (for example, paranoia – irrational concerns that others are “out to get you” or that the television, radio, or internet are broadcasting specific messages that require a reaction).
-Thought disorder, manifests itself in strange thinking and chaotic communication.

Loss of drive, boredom or lack of enjoyment in daily tasks, social retreat, difficulty expressing emotions, and difficulties functioning regularly are all negative signs. Individuals usually have the following characteristics:

-Lack of motivation, as well as difficulty organizing, starting, and maintaining activities
-Increased sentiments of dissatisfaction in everyday life
-“Flat affect,” or a lack of emotional expressiveness through facial expression or voice tone.
-More limited speaking

Attention, concentration, and memory impairments are among the cognitive symptoms. The cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia are modest in some people, but they are more noticeable in others, interfering with activities such as following conversations, learning new things, and remembering appointments. Individuals commonly have the following symptoms:

-Difficulty making decisions due to difficulty processing information
-Problems in applying material just after learning it
-Difficulty concentrating or paying attention

Risk Factors:

The chance of having schizophrenia is influenced by a number of factors.

Schizophrenia can run in families in some cases. It’s important to note, however, that just because one member of a family has schizophrenia doesn’t guarantee that the rest of the family will. Many different genes enhance the likelihood of developing schizophrenia, according to genetic studies, but no single gene causes the condition on its own. It is now impossible to determine who may develop schizophrenia using genetic information.

Interactions between genetic risk and features of an individual’s environment, according to scientists, may have a role in the development of schizophrenia. Living in poverty, being in a stressful environment, and being exposed to viruses or nutritional deficiencies before birth are all possible contributors.

Differences in brain structure, function, and interactions among chemical messengers (called neurotransmitters) are thought to have a role in the development of schizophrenia, according to scientists. People with schizophrenia, for example, have abnormalities in the sizes of specific brain components, in the way regions of the brain are connected and act together, and in neurotransmitters like dopamine. It’s possible that differences in brain connections and circuits identified in adults with schizophrenia occur before birth. People who are vulnerable to psychotic episodes owing to heredity, environmental exposures, or the types of brain variations listed above may be triggered by changes in the brain that occur during adolescence.

Some Therapies and Treatments:

Because the roots of schizophrenia are complicated and unknown, current treatments focus on symptom management and resolving challenges connected to day-to-day functioning. The following are some of the treatments:

1. Antipsychotic Medications

Antipsychotic drugs can assist to lessen the severity and frequency of psychotic episodes. They’re normally used on a daily basis as pills or liquids. Some antipsychotic drugs are administered as monthly injections, which some people find more convenient than daily oral doses. Clozapine is given to patients whose symptoms do not improve with regular antipsychotic medicine. Clozapine users must have regular blood tests to detect a potentially hazardous side effect that affects 1-2 percent of people.

When people start taking antipsychotic drugs, they often experience adverse effects including weight gain, dry mouth, restlessness, and drowsiness. Some of these adverse effects fade with time, but others may linger, prompting some people to think about quitting their antipsychotic medication. Stopping medicine abruptly can be risky, and it can exacerbate schizophrenia symptoms. People should not discontinue taking an antipsychotic medication without first consulting a doctor.

The recommended technique for choosing the optimal type of drug or medication combination, as well as the appropriate dose, is shared decision-making between doctors and patients. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website has the most up-to-date information on warnings, patient medication recommendations, and newly approved pharmaceuticals.

2. Psychosocial Interventions:

Cognitive-behavioral therapy, behavioral skills training, supported employment, and cognitive remediation therapies may be used to help people with schizophrenia deal with their psychological and cognitive symptoms. It’s typical to use a mix of these therapy and antipsychotic medication. Psychosocial therapy can be beneficial in teaching and enhancing coping skills to help people with schizophrenia deal with the obstacles they face on a daily basis. They can assist people in achieving their life objectives, such as going to school, working, or creating relationships. People who receive regular psychosocial treatment are less likely to relapse or end up in the hospital. See the NIMH’s Psychotherapies section for further information on psychosocial treatments.

3. Support and Education for Families:

Family members, significant others, and friends can learn about schizophrenia symptoms and treatments, as well as ways for aiding the individual with the illness, through educational programs. Increasing key supports’ knowledge about psychotic symptoms, treatment options, and the recovery process can reduce their suffering, boost coping and empowerment, and improve their ability to provide effective support. Individual or multi-family workshops and support groups may be used to deliver family-based services. Visit the National Alliance on Mental Illness’s family education and support groups page for more information about family-based programs in your area.

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