Sign & Symptoms

Diabetes mellitus- hormonal and metabolic disorders

Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by an increase in blood sugar and resulting in damage to the kidneys, the nervous system, which impairs vision and affects the nervous and vascular systems. Diabetes can be of different types, can affect both young people, and evolve with age. Depending on the type of disease, the patient requires special treatment based on lifestyle changes, diet, and medication. You can choose the right therapy by making an appointment at the private medical center «MedAstram». The specialists of the clinic have a great positive experience of effective treatment of the disease.

What is diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a pathology characterized by metabolic disorders, primarily carbohydrates, which result in damage to the cells of various organs, from arterial vessels to kidneys and liver. To be sure, the disease can progress without any symptoms for a long time, so many do not seek medical care in time. According to the World Health Organization, 10 percent of the population is infected. Hence the importance of regular preventive medical examinations and blood glucose measurements.

Causes of diabetes mellitus

Diabetes results from several causes that disrupt glucose intake into cells, leading to an increase in blood content with the development of multiple exchange disorders. Regardless of the type of pathology, specialists identify the following risk factors:

  • Genetic predisposition – it is known that if parents or close relatives have contracted diabetes mellitus, the risk of developing diabetes is increased by 5-10 percent;
  • Excess body weight and obesity
  • The predominance of carbohydrate s in food, resulting in disruption of their exchange;
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Chronic stress is associated with psychological or physical overload. The hormones of adrenal glands released under stress disrupt the normal flow of exchange processes;
  • Long-term administration of diabetes-promoting drugs such as glucocorticoids, diuretics, cytotoxic drugs, etc.

It should be noted that in diabetes type 1 causes differ – in patients, there is a deficiency of insulin associated with damage of cells in the islets of Langerhans pancreas. This variant of the disease is usually congenital autoimmune and occurs at a young age.

How do you know you have diabetes?

It is very difficult to independently detect a pathology, as it is a long-term manifestation of non-specific complaints and develops gradually, especially in type II diabetes (type I diabetes develops rapidly).

Main signs of illness:

  • Dry mouth and strong thirst followed by up to 10 liters of liquid per day;
  • frequent and abundant urination
  • Increased appetite
  • Skin itching with dry skin and mucous skin;
  • General weakness, rapid fatigue at physical and intellectual stress;
  • Nocturnal cramps of tibia muscles;
  • vision loss.

These manifestations are also characteristic of other diseases and accurate diagnosis is important. If similar symptoms occur, an endocrinologist should be registered immediately.  The specialist will order the necessary examination and make an accurate diagnosis.

What types of diabetes are?

Endocrinologists identify several pathologies, but insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes and insulin-independent (type II) diabetes are most common.

In the first type, insulin, a hormone that is necessary for normal absorption of glucose by cells of internal organs, is deficient in the body. This type of disease usually occurs at a young age.

The second type of diabetes mellitus, by contrast, is characterized by a high level of insulin with low sensitivity of body cells, which results in the injury of internal organs. This form of illness is common among older persons.

Endocrinologists also release diabetes mellitus in pregnant women. It’s a temporary condition, which, with diet correction and additional treatment, goes without a trace.

Diabetes mellitus risk groups

It is possible to prevent the development of diabetes. To do so, at-risk people need to follow the lifestyle and dietary guidelines. What are the risk groups?

  • Age 45 and over;
  • Relatives with diabetes mellitus;
  • Excess body weight and obesity
  • Lack of mobility
  • Pre-diabetes and other carbohydrate exchange disorders;
  • Chronic cardiovascular diseases;
  • Impaired protein and fat exchange;
  • Polycystic ovary disease
  • large fetal pregnancy.

All at-risk individuals should consult with an endocrinologist on a regular basis to identify preventive measures and begin pathological treatment in a timely manner.

How to control blood glucose

There are many methods for determining blood sugar levels. The main one is biochemical analysis, which makes it possible to determine the exact amount of glucose. Normally, it does not exceed 6.5 mmol/l.

The determination of glucose levels at home is possible by utilizing glucose meters. These are compact devices that allow one drop of blood to be tested with high precision. Glucometers should be used by all patients, as knowledge of glucose levels is necessary for the control of treatment.

Complications in diabetes

Without adequate treatment, the disease causes internal organ damage. The patient develops lesions in the retina (retinopathy), small vessels (angiopathy), nerves, and kidneys. As a result of impaired skin nutrition, trophic ulcers are formed on the ankles.

A sudden change in blood glucose levels, both decrease, and increase (hypo or hyperglycemia), poses a threat to the patient’s health and can lead to coma development.

Capacity to treat diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus therapy is based on diet, glucose control (self-control), and drug use. Depending on the type of disease, the endocrinologist selects specific groups of drugs that stabilize glucose and insulin levels, preventing complications and reducing symptoms.

Don’t neglect your health. You’re going to have a beautiful life.

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